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مقالات سال 2015
#1
Perceptions and barriers to walking in the rural South of the United States: The influence of neighborhood built environment on pedestrian behaviors






Abstract

This article examined the relationship between neighborhood built environment and pedestrian behaviors in the rural US South, a setting that has rarely been the focus of previous pedestrian behavior research. It used surveys administered to six neighborhoods in Starkville, Mississippi, a rural/small-town in the South, with a 38.5 per cent response rate and a total of 362 household participants. The study compared walking behavior between traditional neighborhoods built before WWII, early conventional suburban neighborhoods built around the 1970s and late conventional suburban neighborhoods built around the 1990s. The results indicated that aesthetics is the most important perceived neighborhood characteristic that encourages walking, but social environment as a perceived walking barrier discourages walking. Nevertheless, residents’ perceived neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood barriers, as well as their associations with walking differ across the three neighborhood types. This study provided insights into the neighborhood design features and their interplay with the social environment that affects walking in a rural/small-town context.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   Perceptions and barriers to walking in the rural South of the United States.pdf (اندازه: 512/45 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 2)
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#2
What is a walkable place? The walkability debate in urban design

Abstract
What exactly is meant by the term ‘walkability’? In professional, research and public debates the term is used to refer to several quite different kinds of phenomena. Some discussions focus on environmental features or means of making walkable environments, including areas being traversable, compact, physically enticing and safe. Others deal with outcomes potentially fostered by such environments, such as making places lively, enhancing sustainable transportation options and inducing exercise. Finally some use the term walkability as a proxy for better design whether composed of multiple, measurable dimensions or providing a holistic solution to urban problems. This review both problematizes the idea of walkability and proposes a conceptual framework distinguishing these definitions. This matters for urban design, because what is considered a walkable place varies substantially between definitions leading to substantially different designs. By mapping the range of definitions, this review highlights potential conflicts been forms of walkability.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   forsyth2015.pdf (اندازه: 520/4 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 1)
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#3
Everyday life under modernist planning: A study of an ever-transforming urban area in Hong Kong

Abstract


The main objective of this study is to reveal the modernist production of space in relation to the everyday life of people in Hong Kong. Governments usually consider modernist urban planning to be an active force, and assume that this is the only proper means of directing the community towards the ideal of social harmony. As a result, the everyday life for citizens – ordinary people – in urban regions is embodied within the experience of a highly organised society. This article highlights the significance of this modernist ideology for urban development of Hong Kong. A case study of a district, Wan Chai, is then adopted to illustrate a tendency towards specific urban development strategies, in contrast to the diverse urban fabrics that have developed in a historical context. A comparative approach is used to examine the southern and northern parts of the district (that is, Wan Chai North and Wan Chai South). Six dimensions are used to analyse differentiations between modern urban areas and traditional living areas. The results shed light on planning issues that are relevant to everyday spaces.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   siu2015.pdf (اندازه: 905/49 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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#4
A multi-scale approach of public space networks in the scattered city


Abstract


Scattered metropolitan cities are characterized by new urban realities that offer a variety of typologies and services – new centrality areas – that function as cores of attraction, but show a lack of integration between local and wider territorial scales, triggering problems of fragmentation and polarization. In addition, public space is often reduced to its minimal and infrastructural function, ensuring critical connections but lacking design qualities. In this article we will try to understand how it is possible to articulate these multi-scale centralities with local urban fabrics, focusing on the role of public space. We will analyse, within the scope of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, the South Bank, and in more detail, a number of areas of the Almada municipality developing an analysis methodology for identifying problems and opportunities. The hypothesis we place is that public space, in a systemic and multi-scale perspective, as ‘the connecting element’, can link different territorial scales, forming a coherent structure and acting as a reference for scattered urban contexts. We discuss how public spaces as multi-scale connectors can work as binding elements, proposing some design actions and strategies to tackle these urban problems, contributing for the urban design practice.




فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   A multi-scale approach of public space networks in the scattered city.pdf (اندازه: 1/57 MB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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#5
More inclusive than before?: The tale of a historic urban park in Ankara, Turkey


Abstract


In the prevailing literature on contemporary public spaces, two contested sets of arguments become apparent: one depicts the ‘end of public space’, while the other challenges with this ‘end of public space’ discourse. Following the debates, one can ask the question of whether there has been any ideally ‘public’ or ‘inclusive’ public space ever in cities, or the inclusivity (thereby ‘publicness’) of public spaces can or may change in time based on a variety of factors. This research, addressing these questions, contributes to this ongoing discussion, first by providing a model of inclusivity for the qualitative assessment of public spaces, and second by using this model to provide an empirical analysis on the largest urban park in the historic city centre of Ankara, namely Gençlik Park (GP). After in-depth analysis of the changing inclusivity of GP from its heydays to nowadays regarding four dimensions of ‘access’, in relation with its design, management, control and use processes, as well as the contextual aspect of the inclusivity–exclusivity continuum of public–private spaces, it concludes that the ‘inclusive’ nature of public spaces might change and evolve depending on time dimension, as well as the local and global contexts within which the public space is set and bounded. Although the causes and issues regarding the inclusivity capacity of public spaces are complex – that is, ‘multiple’, ‘site-specific’ and ‘interrelated’, the continuous presence of democratic and egalitarian procedural accessibility, which embraces all segments of the public, which gives them the opportunity to raise their voices and opinions about the public spaces, and which deliberation is used as the mechanism to endure a consensual rather than authoritarian style of interaction is a requirement for generating and maintaining inclusive public spaces.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   More inclusive than before The tale of a historic urban park in Ankara, Turkey.pdf (اندازه: 1/26 MB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 1)
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#6
Meaningful perception of place: The most effective dimensions and factors


Abstract


The basis of the present study is to evaluate the process of meaningful perception of place, and to analyze the effectiveness of each factor influencing this process. It will also investigate the effects of various perceptional dimensions (including cognitive, affective, interpretative and evaluative dimensions) on the manner of perceiving different levels of place meaning. Arg Street in Mashhad city was selected as the study area and both the qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted. Techniques of semi-structured interview, and coding and hermeneutic methods were used to analyze the relation among different levels of place meaning and the effective factors and dimensions of environmental perception. Findings demonstrate that certain perceptional dimensions may have more effect on perception of particular levels of place meaning. The results indicate that ‘cognitive dimension’ is the most influential dimension in perception of the primitive level of place meaning, while ‘affective’, ‘interpretative’ and ‘evaluative’ dimensions play the most significant role in perception of the extreme levels of place meaning. Moreover, this research suggests a need for further studies exploring practical methods in our contemporary urban design projects, which can involve the perception of people with the most effective dimensions.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.10] kalali, parisa -- meaningful perception of p   URBAN DESIGN International Volume 20 issue 3 2015 [doi 10.1057_udi.2015.10] Kalali, Parisa -- Meaningful perception of p (اندازه: 778/02 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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#7
Assessing grade separation pedestrian systems: Planning, design and operation


Abstract
Grade separation pedestrian systems (GSPS), including skywalk systems and underground pedestrian systems (UPS), have been an emerging phenomenon in the city centres of megacities since early last century. Despite the examples of many successful GSPS in operation around the world, the application and performance of GSPS are not yet well understood by local authorities. This review discusses the functionality of GSPS through an examination of the performance of GSPS in terms of opening hours, facilities for vulnerable populations, signage systems, spatial structure, arrangement of entrances/exits, transportation, safety issues, comfort and amenities. Issues that have emerged from previous discussions in relation to their negative impacts on street life, social inequality of their usage and the privatisation of public spaces of GSPS are also discussed. The review concludes that GSPS have a diversity of functionality in varied urban settings. It also reveals shortcomings in the performance of GSPS. The literature review suggests research aspects that need to be updated, including the lack of empirically based studies, particularly studies from the perspective of the pedestrians using the systems, and a lack of investigation of the functionality of GSPS in cities other than North American cities, in particular, cities with UPS in developing countries.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   Assessing grade separation pedestrian systems Planning, design and operation.pdf (اندازه: 232/66 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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#8
Engagement in public open spaces across age groups: The case of Merdeka Square in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia


Abstract
People’s engagement with public open spaces is complex and affected by different factors. The importance of people’s needs differs according to their age groups. In this respect, what this article aims to unveil is the priority of needs in public open spaces across age groups. A self-administered questionnaire survey collected the opinions of 400 people aged 13 years and above using the time-interval sampling method. The results revealed that the strongest inverse relationship existed between age and social needs. This illustrated that old people are less likely to carry out social interaction with other groups or to explore public open spaces compared to younger people. In turn, old people are more concerned about their physical and environmental needs. Exploring the dichotomies between the needs of old and young people highlights the intergenerational conflicts that challenge urban designers and decision makers to ameliorate the design and management of future public open spaces.


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   Engagement in public open spaces across age groups The case of Merdeka Square in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia.pdf (اندازه: 411/42 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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#9
Space, movement and heritage planning of the historic cities in Islamic societies: Learning from the Old City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
Traditional historic cities in Islamic societies of Asia and Africa are fast disappearing and/or losing relevance. There is a clear need for heritage planners to plan for what is left and to integrate these historic cities with the bigger cities that surround them. This study on movement dynamics of people and cars in relation to spatial configuration, described using space syntax, was undertaken in the Old City of Jeddah to understand and learn how accessibility and the density of people and activities can be used for retaining the viability and vitality of this and other historic cities. The study reports several findings that are potentially relevant to heritage planning. However, further studies are needed to understand the importance of the findings in relation to different social and symbolic realities of Islamic societies before specific spatial strategies can be identified for heritage planning in this and other historic cities


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.   Space, movement and heritage planning of the historic cities in Islamic societies Learning from the Old City of Jeddah, (اندازه: 1/24 MB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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#10
Starting over: A focused vision for the old suburbs of Lisbon


Abstract
The phenomenon of suburban decline is a reality across the western world. In Europe, the reaction to this problem has been slow and unfocused and has also had very limited success. Urban research aims to deal with suburbs not just as devalued urban growth models, or available space for future expansion, but as areas for redevelopment, regeneration and re-invention. Today, within the Lisbon suburban areas, many outlying rural areas remain, alongside derelict factories and residential developments. Several areas show decline symptoms such as population decrease, ageing, deindustrialisation and defunctionalisation. Rescuing the older suburban centres may require a certain mourning of the past, but at the same time it incorporates the mechanisms of new social and productive systems. New ways of local genesis begin to emerge, mobilising involvement in and by the community and investing in emblematic and replicable initiatives. The aim of this article is to present the revitalisation strategy in place in Amadora: an innovative, interdisciplinary and prospective intervention in Lisbon’s outskirts


فایل‌(های) پیوست شده
.pdf   Starting over A focused vision for the old suburbs of Lisbon.pdf (اندازه: 710/6 KB / تعداد دفعات دریافت: 0)
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  مقالات سال 2016 all4city 6 2,149 ۱۳۹۴/۱۲/۲۲، ۰۴:۱۳ ب.ظ
آخرین ارسال: all4city

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